Plant & Works Engineering October / November 2023

NEWS | FEATURES | PRODUCTS | CASE STUDIES October/November 2023 | Issue 477 @PWEmagazine1 Monaghan-based manufacturer celebrates 25 years Inside this issue: 14 > Unlocking operational excellence 30 > Turnkey steam project completed for UK’s largest centralised kitchen 38 > Safeguarding legacy equipment: Addressing cybersecurity challenges for manufacturers page 34 @plant-&-works-engineering PWE Plant & Works Engineering Since 1981

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The findings of the survey, “Perceptions vs Reality”, reveal an encouraging shift in the way the British public views the manufacturing sector The resurgence of UK manufacturing In a recent study of 2436 individuals, conducted by Savanta for Make UK, the manufacturers’ organisation in collaboration with Sheffield Hallam University, a transformation in public perception regarding manufacturing in the United Kingdom is taking place. The findings of the survey, “Perceptions vs Reality”, reveal an encouraging shift in the way the British public views the manufacturing sector, reflecting a newfound appreciation for its significance in the nation’s economy and its ability to tackle contemporary challenges. Five years ago, the narrative was rather different. Negative media coverage and a prevailing sentiment that Britain had lost its touch in “making things” were prevalent. However, the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic served as an important moment. The manufacturing industry stepped up in unprecedented ways, with automotive companies producing ventilators, textile firms pivoting to make medical gear, and food and beverage Editor’s Comment ‘ ’ factories churning out hand sanitisers while ensuring essential supplies. British pharmaceutical companies took the lead in developing life-saving vaccines. This surge of positive press coverage altered perceptions, leaving behind a profound realisation of the pivotal role played by Britain’s industrial base. The study’s results are impressive - 93% of respondents now believe that manufacturing is indispensable for growing the UK economy, a significant leap from the 70% reported five years ago. Parents, in particular, have revised their views, seeing manufacturing as a high-skilled, high-tech, and high-wage sector. For instance, the average food and beverage quality manager in the Southeast earns approximately £61,000, while a purchasing manager in Yorkshire and the Humber takes home an average of £51,000, 9% above the national average. Contrary to the notion of decline, the report highlights UK proudly boasts two of the world’s top ten pharmaceutical companies, while Rolls-Royce manufactures one in five of the world’s jet engines, and six out of ten Formula One Grand Prix teams base their advanced manufacturing operations in the UK. Furthermore, the UK ranks third globally in aerospace manufacturing by value and is the second-largest destination for space investment after the United States, projected to capture 10% of the global space market by 2030. The gender divide has also witnessed a positive transformation, with outreach efforts and campaigns by manufacturing companies successfully encouraging girls to pursue careers in engineering and manufacturing. The survey reveals that 36% of parents would now welcome their daughters working in the sector, while 44% encourage their sons to do the same. This newfound appreciation for manufacturing is a testament to the industry’s resilience, adaptability, and dedication to reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions in pursuit of net-zero goals. Over half of the public believes that manufacturing is environmentally friendly, reflecting the sector’s commitment to sustainable practices. The “Perceptions vs Reality” survey underscores the resurgence of manufacturing in the UK. The sector has not only weathered challenges but has also emerged stronger and more vital than ever. It also highlights the potential opportunities to the next generation of innovators, creators, and makers, ensuring that the UK’s manufacturing sector continues to thrive and lead on the global stage. October/November 2023 Plant & Works Engineering | 03

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October/November 2023 Plant & Works Engineering | 05 Editor: Aaron Blutstein t| 01732 370340 e| Content Sub Editor: Leslah Garland t| 01732 370340 e| Sales Director: Damien Oxlee t| 01732 370342 e| Sales Manager: Andrew Jell t| 01732 370347 e| DFA Direct: Ian Atkinson t| 01732 370340 e| Production Manager & Designer: Chris Davis e| Marketing Executive: Hope Jepson e| Operations Manager: Emma Floyd t| 01732 370340 e| Reader/Circulation Enquiries: Perception t| +44 (0) 1825 701520 e| Financial: Finance Department e| Managing Director: Ryan Fuller e| Chief Executive Officer: Ian Atkinson e| Published by: DFA Media Group 192 The High Street, Tonbridge, Kent TN9 1BE t| 01732 370340 e| w| Official Supporters: Printer: Warners, UK © Copyright 2023, DFA Manufacturing Media Ltd ISSN 0262-0227 PWE is a controlled circulation magazine, published 11 times a year. Please contact DFA Media with any subscription enquiries. Paid subscriptions are also available on an annual basis at £100.00 (UK) or £170.00 (Overseas) P+P included. The content of this magazine, website and newsletters do not necessarily express the views of the Editor or publishers. The publishers accept no legal responsibility for loss arising from information in this publication. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced or stored in a retrieval system without the written consent of the publishers. COMMENT 3 NEWS 6 A round-up of what’s happening in industry. INSIGHT 10 MAINTENANCE MATTERS - INCORPORATING PROBLEM SOLVER 12 Focus on: Maintenance 4.0/ Condition Monitoring/ OEE/ Skills & Training In the manufacturing plant, accelerometers may be deployed to perform a range of tasks, including tilt and inclination measurements and impact recognition and logging. It’s also possible to facilitate machinery health and condition-based monitoring (CBM) in this way, by converting acceleration into vibrational information. PROCESS, CONTROLS, & PLANT 22 Focus on: Compressed Air/ Pumps & Valves Claudia Vignelli explores the variety of factors to consider when selecting the most appropriate oil-free compressed air technology. ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 30 Focus on: Boilers, Burners & Controls/ CHP Industrial process heating equipment and solutions specialist Babcock Wanson has completed a turnkey project to supply steam, via its BWD30 fire tube boiler, to cookers at IRC Cucina’s new Trafford Park centralised kitchen. PWE reports. HANDLING & SAFETY MATTERS 34 Focus on: Handling & Storage In 1998 Combilift originally made history with its world-first multidirectional C4000 3wheel, all-wheel drive forklift. Last month, the company celebrated its 25th Anniversary at its headquarters in Monaghan, Ireland with the launch of its latest products. PWE reports. SPECIAL FOCUS INDUSTRIAL SECURITY 38 ADVANCED ENGINEERING PREVIEW 40 PRODUCTS & SERVICES DIRECTORY 42 Contents 10 34 12 30 BCAS official media partner

News 6 | Plant & Works Engineering October/November 2023 In 1998 Combilift originally made history with its world-first multidirectional C4000 3-wheel, all-wheel drive forklift. Last month, the company celebrated its 25th Anniversary at its headquarters in Monaghan, Ireland. Speaking at Combilift’s 25th Anniversary event, Minister for Rural and Community Development, Heather Humphreys TD said: “Over the past 25 years, Combilift has made a very important impact to the Irish economy. Combilift is a visionary company in every sense and I’m delighted that the Irish government, through Enterprise Ireland, has supported Combilift through its incredible 25year journey.” Martin McVicar – Managing Director of Combilift, added: “We have a track record of innovation at Combilift. We invest 7% of our revenue annually in R&D and today is the culmination of many years’ hard work. We are delighted to be continuing this tradition of innovation 25 years on. Now employing over 800 people in Monaghan and 200 people in other locations across the world, the success of Combilift is testament to our people, our customers and our supporting dealers around the world. We are looking forward to the next 25 years at Combilift.” The 25th Anniversary event was a positive celebration of how far the company has come in those 25 years and an acknowledgement of the contributions the company has made to the material handlings sector across the world. PWE attended the celebrations to look at the some of the latest developments announced at the event. You can read more about them on page 34. Combilift celebrates 25 years at its Monaghan HQ New technology centre opening marks milestone for manufacturer Domin recently celebrated the grand opening of its state-of-the-art Technology Centre. The successful event, held on 7 September, was attended by customers, suppliers, partners, and the Domin team. This landmark opening marked a significant milestone in Domin’s journey from humble beginnings in a small attic office to the cutting-edge facility that it is today. Eric Bray, the Technology Manager from ADS, who supports the National Aerospace Technology Enhancement Programme said: “Domin has come a very long way, they’ve created a British manufacturing company, which is head and shoulders above their peers today.” The company’s vision to revolutionise the hydraulics industry, redefining how we use energy and creating a novel way to control motion, was at the centre of the conversation for guests as they explored the Domin Technology Centre. The new Domin Technology Centre is the consolidation of the company’s high-tech engineering and manufacturing facilities, bringing various sites across Europe and Bristol into one, where the Domin team have streamlined operations and optimised efficiency. This is enabling the team to rapidly develop and produce its innovative hydraulic motion control systems. The company aims to radically increase efficiency and intelligence in motion control across various applications in globally important industries. Guests and attendees enjoyed tours of the new factory, describing it as smart, professional, innovative, and high performing. The Domin team received accolades for their dedication and enthusiasm towards their mission, making it clear that they are not just employees but passionate visionaries. Jim Hennen, the Business Development Manager for hydraulic platforms from MTS Systems, part of the ITW family said: “Domin is such an inspirational company for innovation and is creating really a disruptive technology. It is very exciting and the team here some of the best and the brightest.” A highlight was the official inauguration of the Domin Technology Centre by the Member of Parliament and Minister of State at the Department for Business and Trade, Nusrat Ghani MP. Minister Ghani was impressed by Domin’s cutting-edge technology and its potential to transform industries. She praised the company’s vision and commitment to innovation: “What I’ve seen here at Domin is absolutely fascinating. I am very excited for what it means for advanced manufacturing across all the sectors. Not only reducing the impact on the environment, so reducing the Combilift now employs over 800 people in Monaghan and 200 people in other locations across the world Marcus Pont, CEO, and Nusrat Ghani MP, opening Domin Technology Centre

News October/November 2023 Plant & Works Engineering | 07 demand for energy, but also for advancing technology in the automotive, aviation, and the maritime sector.” Marcus Pont, CEO and co-founder, expressed his gratitude towards everyone who attended the open day, customers, suppliers, and staff alike, emphasising their dedication to pushing the boundaries of motion control technology. They shared their excitement about the future and reiterated Domin’s commitment to transforming the hydraulics industry. Marcus said: “We were thrilled to open our doors and welcome our partners and community to celebrate this milestone in Domin’s evolution. The open day provided a glimpse into the future of motion control. I’m extremely proud of our team who have worked tirelessly to get us to this point. The new Domin Technology Centre provides an ideal springboard as we continue our mission to bring unrivalled efficiency, accuracy and intelligence to hydraulics.” The UK’s manufacturing sector has climbed one place to eighth in the world rankings, overtaking France in the process according to analysis of the latest official data published by Make UK. The figures are contained in the latest annual ‘Manufacturing – The Facts’ which contains a wide variety of data about the contribution of manufacturing to the economy including exports, sectoral breakdown, how the UK compares to other nations and salary levels. The data shows that in 2021 UK (the latest year for which global comparisons are available) UK manufacturing output was worth some $272bn, compared to $262bn for France, but behind Italy ($314bn). To put this data in context, China is the largest manufacturing nation worth $4.9tn, followed by the United States $2.5tn and Japan $995bn. Germany, the fourth highest, remains the largest European manufacturing country $803bn. According to Make UK while the climb up the rankings is encouraging, it strongly cautioned that it is only the third time since 2002 that the UK has ranked above France and cannot be attributed to any post Brexit bounce or other specific factor. Separate data for 2022 from the ONS places UK manufacturing output at £224bn and Make UK believes that, if the Government commits to its call for a manufacturing target of 15% of GDP, (which Make UK estimates would add £142bn to the UK economy) then the sector could aim to match seventh ranked Italy. With many competitor nations having their own versions of an Industrial Strategy, Make UK has also repeated its calls for a long-term, modern, and robust Strategy which could help turn the 15% ambition into a reality. The analysis of official data also shows that the United States remains the dominant export market for UK goods (2) worth £56.7bn in 2022. While Germany has lost its place as the second highest destination (£33.3bn) having been overtaken by The Netherlands (£37bn), Make UK cautioned that trade with the Netherlands could be inflated artificially by goods being routed through Rotterdam for onward travel to other destinations. Ireland is the fourth largest export market (£30.3bn) with six of the top ten export markets being in the EU. Together they are worth approximately £150bn, almost three times the exports to the US and around four times the amount to China. According to Make UK, this highlights the continued importance of the EU for UK goods and the need to smooth out trade barriers with what remains overwhelmingly its dominant market. By sector, food and drink is the biggest exporter, sending 12.4% of manufactured goods abroad in 2022, while the sector also grew exports by almost a quarter (23%) compared to 2021. Aerospace and Transport increased its exports in the same period by 27.9%, highlighting its importance to high value manufacturing and the economy overall. The analysis by Make UK also shows that, contrary to popular opinion, manufacturing jobs are better paid than both services and the economy overall. According to official data (3) the average salary in manufacturing in 2022 was £36,488, which compares to £33,402 for the economy overall and £32,676 for services. The North West remains the biggest manufacturing area of the UK, worth £28.2bn in output and employing 314,000 people. The sector accounts for almost 15% of North West economic output and 8% of regional employment. Wales has the highest share of manufacturing with the sector accounting for almost a fifth (17.3%) of the Welsh economy. This compares to just under 10% national average. UK manufacturing sector climbs to eighth in world rankings

News 08 | Plant & Works Engineering October/November 2023 As they say, do you want the good news or the good news? The good news is that the UK manufacturing sector has climbed one place in the world rankings above France to become the 8th largest manufacturing nation. This is according to the latest data from the United Nations for 2021 (the latest year available). This comes with a large degree of caution given it is only the third time in the last twenty years that the UK has been above France and, the difference is very marginal. Both countries are still some way behind seventh placed Italy while, to no surprise, Germany remains the largest European manufacturing nation with a sector around three times larger than the UK and, more than twice the size of Italy. The second piece of good news is that the majority of the public believe manufacturing is critical to the future of the UK economy and, vital to delivering solutions today to the societal challenges we face. The findings came in a poll Make UK carried out of over two thousand people using comparable questions to a similar survey five years ago. The survey shows that 93% of people believe manufacturing is critical to growing the UK economy, compared with just 70% five years ago. Furthermore, the gender divide was stark in 2018 when nearly a quarter of parents (24%) would encourage their son to work in manufacturing, and just 14% for daughters. However. More than a third (36%) of parents would now be happy for their daughters to work in the sector, while almost half (44%) of parents would encourage their sons to work in manufacturing. However, the bad news is that the survey shows the dial has not shifted significantly in the last five years in terms of the public’s perception of the UK as a manufacturing power. Five years ago, the public believed the UK was 56th in the world ranking of manufacturing nations, the position occupied at the time by Kazakhstan. In the latest survey, the public believed Britain ranked 43rd, the position actually held by the United Arab Emirates. It shows that the sector still faces huge challenges in changing public perception and emphasising its importance. By MAKE UK chief executive, Stephen Phipson MAKE uk - the manufacturers’ organisation monthly news comment From 14 – 16 November 2023, the who’s who of the automation industry will once again meet in Nuremberg. More than 1200 exhibitors from around the world are expected to attend the 32nd edition of the SPS, Smart Production Solutions, covering 16 exhibition halls and a total exhibition space of approximately 120,000 sqm. In addition to the latest innovations, the industry event offers interested parties the opportunity to experience practical and forward-looking technologies at first hand and engage in a lively exchange with automation suppliers. Visitors to the SPS 2023 in November, which is the highlight of the automation industry calendar, will once again enjoy the opportunity to expand their network, connect with potential partners, explore joint business opportunities, and learn about the latest topics in automation. In addition to the classic, highly sought-after automation themes of control technology, drive technology and sensor technology, software & IT is becoming an increasingly important subject in manufacturing. Some exhibitors will, among other things, discuss which automation functions will, in the future, most likely be provided directly on the machine, using edge computing, or even in the cloud. This development has been expedited by Siemens AG, for example, which introduced a purely cloud-based software variant of a programmable logic controller in the spring. In connection with this, attention is increasingly turning to the use of artificial intelligence and IT security in the automation world, which will be reflected in the range of products and services at the event. Visitors will, among other things, benefit from the wide range of products and services offered by the German and international automation providers and gain a unique insight into leading technologies in the industry. According to the figures for last year’s event, a total of 360 of the 43,813 visitors came from the UK. Those attending the SPS can look forward to a wide range of presentations on current topics from the automation industry at the forums in halls 3, 6 and 8. The Technology Stage program in Hall 3, hosted by the two industry associations VDMA and ZVEI, will also be broadcast live in German and English at the complementary online event, “SPS on air”. This year’s panel discussions, product presentations, and keynote sessions will focus on: Digital transformation/Industry 4.0 Industrial communication Data-driven and intelligent concepts for control and visualization Sensor innovations Drives Sustainability through automation Up-to-date information about the exhibition programme can be found on the event website at: SPS Exhibition set to highlight automation demand Smart manufacturing masters launched Aston University is to open up the world of smart manufacturing to the engineers of tomorrow. Based on the research expertise in the University’s College of Engineering and Physical Sciences it will be offering a masters degree in smart manufacturing. The field is estimated to expand by more than 12% between 20202025 due to the ‘fourth industrial revolution’ and government involvement. Industrial automation in manufacturing is on the increase as are software systems that reduce time and cost to the market. The masters course will teach a wide range of hands-on skills in smart manufacturing to create innovative solutions for complex manufacturing problems through developing state-of-the-art technologies. Programme director Dr Muftooh Siddiqi said: “This is a course for those who want to be at the forefront of technological growth. “Smart manufacturing is of tremendous significance in the field of manufacturing and is a way to the future. “This programme will embed the technological revolution deep within the mindset of engineers and teach the skills to design and develop new technologies that embrace the challenges of future manufacturing.”

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10 | Plant & Works Engineering October/November 2023 Insight Talking Industry Review Talking Industry is a freeform conversation between industry experts, as opposed to a scripted webinar. On this occasion, the three speakers interpreted the intention perfectly, and the session almost morphed into a single conversational piece, where all of the topics were covered within a single chat. Our three speakers were: Ian Holland, Managing Director, Dold Industries Ltd; Peter Keckes, Strategic Account Manager UK&I, Red Lion Controls; and David Dearden, Managing Director of Euchner UK Ltd. David provided a general perspective of trends in safety and security technology. He sees safety solutions changing from hard-wired physical relay-based systems to programmable systems, as the cost of safety I/O has come down significantly. The number of vendors providing programmable or configurable safety control systems is also increasing. Whereas it was relatively prohibitive to use a programmable safety system on a machine, apart from in highly specialist circumstances, now it is becoming the norm. If you have a programmable controller or a PC based control system that’s managing the rest of the control function, why wouldn’t you also include that in the in the safety functions? With the advancement of automation and robotics, safety systems are also getting much more complex. It was not long before the other speakers entered the fray. Peter made the case for the continued use in some areas of hard-wired and simple logic systems, where speed is critical. This is because there are no conversions needed between the analogue and digital worlds. However, there is a need to take digital information out of a wired system, so that the information can be used elsewhere for monitoring and management purposes. Ian also made the case for relay logic, pointing out that his company still supplies millions of relays every day. Much of this demand is down to cost and the different skillsets which would be required. He said that cost is a major factor, and with the price of energy going up, the price of resource and infrastructure spending has to go down. But both Ian and David agreed that if building a new production line or a new warehousing logistics centre, it would be rare for the safety-related control system to be based on relay technology. The session moved on to discuss other aspects, including changing skillsets and the challenge of working with multiple protocols. We concluded with more futuristic concepts, including how artificial intelligence will influence safety and security technology over the next 5 to 10 years, both for good and ill, if it is not already here! Standards are trying hard to catch up with the fast-moving technology: as we might expect, the latest regulations are found within Europe, as the familiar Machinery Directive now has a very strong focus on cybersecurity. In the chat are some of the useful links provided by the speakers and other contributors. Even if you were unable to attend on the day, there is no better way to participate than to listen back to the on-demand version, or the podcasts. Do feel free to contact us with further questions, which we will readily pass on to the speakers on the day. The Talking Industry live event is just the beginning! Talking Industry is Sponsored by Drives & Controls Exhibition, the #1 event for automation, power transmission & motion control. Taking place 4-6th June 2024, at the NEC, Birmingham, in association with Manufacturing & Engineering Week 2024. Drive The Future. Visit: Talking Industry Advances in safety engineering and security The latest Talking Industry (TI) addressed how implementing safety initiatives can enhance efficiency, while addressing the risks. Andy Pye, Chairperson of TI, gives a brief overview of the event.

Insight October/November 2023 Plant & Works Engineering | 11 Vibration analysis has been for many years the technology of choice for maintenance professionals to monitor the condition of rotating assets. However, in the last years ultrasound has also emerged as a very popular technology for condition monitoring. The question that many are now asking themselves is: which one is best? Ultrasound or vibration? Why vibration analysis? Vibration analysis is an incredible tool: it detects and measures small vibrations and what is causing them, thus allowing maintenance professionals to detect early failures on rotating equipment. Furthermore, vibration analysis gives us a very deep diagnostic and allows us to identify the failure’s root cause, and thus correct it to avoid further issues in the future. Plus, there is a great number of vibration sensors and solutions in the market to choose for, so maintenance teams can find a solution that is suitable for their needs. Why Ultrasound? Ultrasound is considered by many the first line of defence when it comes to bearing failures, since it can give a very early warning of a potential problem, even with lubrication issues. The way ultrasound does that is by monitoring the friction levels on rotating equipment. The concept is simple: as a bearing starts to fail or is not lubricated properly (under or over lubricated), the friction levels rise. Friction creates ultrasound emissions that can be picked up by an ultrasonic handheld device or sensor and translated to low frequency sounds that the inspector can hear. Ultrasound equipment will also provide a decibel level – and the higher the decibel, the higher the friction. Ultrasound or vibration? There is no easy answer to this question, but one thing is for sure: if a maintenance team wants to reach excellence, both technologies should be used. Ultrasound will provide the earliest warning of failure and is also very easy to use, since it relies on simply trending decibel levels. Vibration analysis is extremely complete and will give maintenance professionals a deep overview of the issue and the root cause of such issue. Almost as if ultrasound is the doctor who detects the problem, and vibration is the health specialist that will diagnose it properly. We will now talk about a few situations where, in general, ultrasound can be used instead of vibration analysis. Slow Speed Bearings Slow speed bearings are difficult to monitor. Since they rotate very slowly, it’s difficult for vibration sensors to pick up significant changes in vibration. Even with an ultrasound instrument it may be difficult to pick up failures if we rely only on decibel levels, since in extreme slow speed bearing applications (usually less than 25rpm), the bearing will produce little to no ultrasonic noise. However, high-end ultrasonic devices will allow for sound recording: by recording the sound of the bearing and checking it in a spectrum analysis software, we can easily find peaks in the sound spectrum amplitude which indicate a fault in the bearing. First line of defence, easy to use For a maintenance professional to properly work with vibration analysis, significant training and experience are needed. On the other side, ultrasound has a much quicker learning curve. And this is because of how the technology works: since it is monitoring friction levels and translating them to dB values, we can easily check for potential problems with our rotating equipment. Once we setup a dB baseline for a bearing, we just need to trend the dB value overtime. So, if the baseline for a bearing is 20dB, but the ultrasonic instrument reads 32db, we already know there is a problem simply by comparing values. Lubrication Again, because ultrasound is based on the friction levels, it is perfectly adequate for bearing lubrication. Is the bearing lacking lubrication? Then the friction levels will increase, and we can hear that through the ultrasonic instrument and see it in the dB levels. If we start lubricating the bearing, most likely we will see a decrease in the sound intensity and the dB levels. Did the bearing receive too much lubricant? Then again, friction levels will increase, and we will know that using the ultrasonic instrument. Thus, ultrasound is perfect to avoid under- and over-lubrication issues. Versatility While vibration analysis is an extremely powerful tool, its uses are limited to mechanical equipment. On the other hand, ultrasound has a wide range of applications which makes it a very versatile technology. One of the most popular applications of ultrasound, besides condition monitoring, is energy savings. Since turbulence also creates ultrasound emissions, the ultrasonic instruments can be easily used for leak detection (compressed air and other gases), steam traps inspection and even for electrical inspections, to detect issues such as corona, tracking and arcing. Conclusion We believe, as many other maintenance professionals nowadays, that using multiple technologies that complement each other is the way to go. Therefore, the question is not ultrasound vs vibration, but instead ultrasound and vibration and when we should be using one or the other. Both are very powerful condition monitoring technologies and, when used properly together, can really take any maintenance and reliability program to the excellence level. For further information please visit: Ultrasound and Vibration analysis: two key elements of predictive maintenance Christopher Hallum, UE Systems North Europe Operations Manager looks at the role of ultrasound as a condition monitoring tool and why using vibration and ultrasound together is the best way to reach excellence in your maintenance practices.

In consumer devices, motion sensors offer an additional layer of functionality to provide a more user-friendly and immersive experience. They’re what allow game controllers to recognise tilting and rotational movements, as well as to register when you turn your phone sideways to watch a video or view a landscape image. Accelerometers can recognise these movements by measuring proper acceleration, with both single and multi-axis accelerometers available to determine magnitude, direction and orientation. In the manufacturing plant, accelerometers may be deployed to perform a range of tasks, including tilt and inclination measurements and impact recognition and logging. It’s also possible to facilitate machinery health and conditionbased monitoring (CBM) in this way, by converting acceleration into vibrational information. Misalignments or faults with shafts or bearings are likely to cause changes in vibration that can be picked up by the system. Maintenance Matters Focus on: Maintenance 4.0 12 | Plant & Works Engineering October/November 2023 Measuring vibration, linear and angular motion Applications that require precise information on the linear or angular movement of an object rely on the accuracy of motion sensors within. Accelerometers and gyroscopes can be used to provide this movement data, and utilising developments in MEMS technologies means this is all possible within a much smaller space envelope. But as we push for increased functionality in smaller spaces, what can custom ICs do to benefit? Richard Mount, Director of Sales at ASIC design and supply company Swindon Silicon Systems explains. Therefore, combining strategically placed accelerometers around the plant with IoT technologies helps to enable predictive maintenance, by allowing the system to flag any potential issues before they become serious. For information on angular velocity, it’s preferable to employ a gyroscope. Able to measure rotation around one, two or three axes, gyroscopes are commonly used in applications that require stability. This includes military applications to provide stabilised launch and landing platforms for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), as well as aviation applications to monitor aircraft altitude. It’s also possible to combine accelerometers with gyroscopes for more accurate data on the object’s movement. It’s clear that the applications of these motion sensors stretch far beyond consumer devices. Yet all these sensors must be able to perform

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Many industrial plants and processes rely heavily on a large range of process instrumentation. From water treatment plants to petro-chemical facilities, they all depend on flow meters, temperature and pressure transmitters and gas and liquid analysers to give accurate measurement and control. Although the overwhelming focus of plant managers will be on the health and correct operation of the process, the instruments that provide the data also need attention. They must continue to operate reliably and accurately if the processes are to run as desired. This means that the health of the instruments themselves should be a major priority. Smart devices measure own condition Advances in technology have seen today’s process instrumentation become largely digitally based. These instruments produce a wealth of information about the process Maintenance Matters Focus on: Condition Monitoring 14 | Plant & Works Engineering October/November 2023 Unlocking operational excellence PWE takes a look at how developments in instrument condition monitoring can unlock operational excellence. parameters they are designed to measure – they also use their digital features to report about their own performance and accuracy. Commonly known as condition monitoring, many modern devices can check their own circuits for errors and other issues, help technicians conduct calibration and evaluate their own performance. Some of the benefits of device condition monitoring include keeping constant track of the health of measurement devices, often bringing the ability to share health check reports with the device vendor. Experts at the device supplier can then offer service recommendations based on the device’s health status and even offer remote assistance. Some providers take data from their devices and offer a full online condition monitoring system to enhance decision-making, putting information at users’ fingertips. Reduced maintenance is another major benefit. Although many instruments are designed to minimize maintenance effort with self-cleaning and self-optimizing of active components, an accurate assessment of the condition of the device allows users to move to a predictive maintenance regime, avoiding the need to conduct scheduled maintenance that may not be necessary. This can be particularly useful if the device is in a remote area, is difficult to access or is part of a process that could pose risks to health and safety. Another benefit is achieving maximum up time of the device. This is particularly important for critical operations such as gas emissions monitoring systems, which are becoming much stricter in many countries. For example, in the countries with the most restrictive regulations, operations may have only a maximum of 10 invalid minutes per half hour, a maximum of 5-6 invalid half hour averages per day, or a maximum of 10 invalid days per year. Further options for condition monitoring of instruments include remote monitoring that can send condition alerts direct to a manager’s smartphone or tablet, keeping them constantly aware of how critical devices are performing. Gaining all the benefits The basic first requirement when seeking to taking advantage of these abilities is to get the right communications with the device. Most measurement devices are digital, though many applications continue to use the tried and tested 4-20mA current loop. Some of the most advanced 4-20mA measurement devices also offer HART communications, a bi-directional communication protocol that sends data to and from intelligent field instruments and host systems. An ability to interrogate the device is the next step and two common methods exist for interrogating device data. The first is inbuilt condition monitoring and diagnostics based on the NAMUR NE 107 standard. NAMUR NE 107 makes it easier for technicians and other process personnel who need to deal with alarms by categorizing internal diagnostics into four standard status signals — failure, function check, out of specification and maintenance required. Each of these status signals can also contain greater detail. With a failure signal, for

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16 | Plant & Works Engineering October/November 2023 Maintenance Matters Focus on: Condition Monitoring example, information could include whether the failure can be traced to the measuring device, or if the process itself is at fault. With NAMUR NE 107 diagnostics, users have the option to turn off diagnostics that are not required – alternatively, they can configure how the diagnostics are reported. ABB says all its measurement devices conform to NE 107, and it has used the standard alarm codes to build an online diagnostic app to offer the self-service support features that meet this need. For example, if a flow meter is displaying an error code on the device’s HMI, users would simply choose the flow meter on the app then select the displayed error code from a dropdown menu. Entering the error code would return the nature of the fault together with suggestions to remedy the situation. ABB also offers instruments that encrypt device maintenance and operating conditions within dynamic QR codes, making it easier for less experienced personnel to streamline troubleshooting processes, as they can simply take a picture of the QR code with their smartphone. They then forward the data securely to receive remote support. Accurate verification in the field One of the most important aspects of maintaining a device’s accuracy is field verification. Historically verification has been carried out manually, with engineers using multimeters and similar devices. Drawbacks typically include longer downtimes, and the need for specially trained technicians. A faster option is software verification, but this can involve using different software packages for different types of devices and one package may not work with all communications protocols. The best modern verification software packages can be used for many device types, performing deep analysis of the device’s condition, with no need for any specially trained technicians. A report is produced on the calibration variables, assessing the limits and determining if the device has passed or failed. Towards predictive maintenance Condition monitoring is the essential basis of the most effective and economical type of maintenance - predictive maintenance. Using performance data, predictive maintenance gives insights into which device and which component on the device is likely to fail and when. This allows maintenance staff to investigate the device’s condition more effectively. Maintenance tasks can then be conducted to comply with production schedules and conduct any repairs before the instrument fails. A properly conducted predictive maintenance programme will dramatically reduce or even eliminate unplanned downtime caused by instrumentation failures. It can also help make more efficient use of the workforce, ensuring tasks can be scheduled more effectively. Another major benefit is the increased up time that can be gained - if an instrument is only taken out of service when absolutely necessary, it can continue to carry out its monitoring role for the maximum length of time. Moving away from preventive maintenance and towards predictive maintenance can help eliminate routine tasks that add no value, reducing overall maintenance costs, while also eliminating the risk of making inaccurate adjustments. With a better insight into the actual condition of the instrument, it can be serviced in the way it requires, increasing its lifespan. By aiding in their own condition monitoring to inform predictive maintenance, modern measuring and monitoring instruments are kept operational for longer. In this way, instrument users can ensure that their processes are also working for the longest possible time, cost-effectively and meeting all regulatory requirements. Reap the benefits of digitalisation With more industrial companies embracing digitalisation, the diagnostic functions included within digital instruments offer a raft of opportunities for enhanced operation and maintenance. Ultimately, whether a company moves towards more use of condition monitoring depends on several factors, including their current device setup, their operating philosophy, their perception of value and what they want from a potential supplier. With the increasingly rich data sets now available from digital instruments, using digital diagnostics to improve accuracy, cut maintenance costs, boost quality and productivity and ensure greater compliance to regulations makes increasing sense. For further information please visit:

Application Story What are your most expensive resources in manufacturing? For many, it will be people, equipment, and raw materials. To be more profitable, you need to make the most of these costly elements. Overall Equipment Effectiveness is an industry-standard measurement that factors in three specific metrics from your operation: availability, quality, and performance. Anything that prevents machines from running correctly or impacts the effectiveness of your operators will affect your OEE figures and, in turn, your bottom line. So, how can you reduce breakdowns, mitigate short stops, and improve uptime? The answer is visibility. Without accurate information and data, inefficiencies will continue to accumulate and, over a given period, present a significant loss of availability. Unfortunately, skilled operators are often firefighting when breakdowns occur, working to resolve the symptoms of an issue rather than Focus on: OEE Maintenance Matters October/November 2023 Plant & Works Engineering | 17 Following the path to improved Overall Equipment Effectiveness Martin Hurley, business development manager for industrial automation specialist Novotek Ireland, looks at how you can improve efficiency, reduce downtime, and increase Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). tackling the core problem. Compounding this issue is a requirement for these same operators to fill out paperwork relating to unplanned downtime, often retrospectively. Gathering data in this way further adds to workloads and is often far less detailed, complete, and accurate than is required for ongoing operational improvement. Understanding the root causes of unplanned downtime requires automated data capture and intuitive, actionable visualisations. With an appropriate platform in place, you’ll gain the visibility needed to resolve the root cause of downtime issues and undertake the continuous improvement necessary to remain competitive in the modern manufacturing industry. Automation also reduces operator workloads while providing far richer data at a greater resolution than manual entry. The result is the ability to make data-driven decisions. The reasons for short stops could be simple, but often the focus on getting the machine running again can mean operators fail to recognise the root cause behind numerous short breakdown periods. There are many systems in the market with the functionality to provide visibility for the purposes of OEE. However, by choosing a standalone solution, you also introduce another isolated silo of information formed from disparate sources without context, preventing high-level analysis. The alternatives are off-the-shelf consolidated applications that provide a greater level of insight thanks to increased context, intuitive user interfaces, and wider connectivity with existing systems and equipment. When looking to increase your availability figures, reducing unplanned downtime is an essential factor alongside reducing planned downtime. Connected smart maintenance, planning, and scheduling tools work with datacollection solutions to improve changeover speeds, planning, and maintenance routines. Novotek has been implementing OEE and downtime analysis solutions for many years. The company says it has a proven methodology that allows for taking advantage of customers’ existing investments in automation and systems: connect, model, store, visualise and optimise. By ensuring that each of these is understood in the context of the capability – such as OEE metrics and detailed reporting - that a customer is seeking, it can ensure that both tool choices, and engineering time are aimed appropriately. And it allows for foundational work like connectivity, modelling or storage to be done in ways that leave the door open to meet additional needs over time. For further information please visit: