Hydraulics & Pneumatics October 2023

www.hpmag.co.uk October 2023 p24 p16 Apprenticeship partnership for sustainable growth Ten key steps to enhance pressure relief system efficiency Hydraulics in automation: Enhancing warehouse operations p26 Energy efficiency: The first step to decarbonising construction

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Embracing digitalisation amid global challenges EDITOR’S COMMENT www.hpmag.co.uk HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 3 The hydraulics and pneumatics industries must navigate the challenges of our time by embracing digitalisation and investing in technology. ‘ ’ In a world marked by constant change, adaptability is the key to thriving in any industry. The hydraulics and pneumatics sectors are no exception. As global challenges continue to mount, from climate change and supply chain disruptions to significant geopolitical conflicts, companies in these sectors must transform to remain competitive and sustainable. One path toward this necessary transformation is through digitalisation and investment in technology. Although the hydraulics and pneumatics industries play a key role in various sectors, they face increased scrutiny in an era marked by heightened environmental concerns, resource scarcity, and geopolitical instabilities. Mitigating the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and addressing climate change is one of the most critical global problems. Both hydraulic and pneumatic systems have historically been associated with high energy consumption and emissions. Digitalisation has the potential to help by allowing for precise control and monitoring of hydraulic equipment. Advanced sensors, IoT connectivity, and data analytics enable companies to optimise their systems, reducing energy consumption and environmental impact. Moreover, supply chain disruptions and economic instability have been particularly pronounced in recent years. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the vulnerabilities of global supply chains. Companies relying on traditional, manual processes found it challenging to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. Digitalisation and technology investments can enhance supply chain resilience, allowing companies to predict and mitigate potential disruptions, ensuring a consistent flow of materials and components. Digitalisation also isn’t merely about efficiency and sustainability; it also brings new capabilities. Machine learning and artificial intelligence can empower predictive maintenance, minimising downtime, and repair costs. It is also no understatement to say that augmented reality and virtual reality technologies can help revolutionise training and troubleshooting, improving workforce skills and operational efficiency. In the context of global problems, investing in digitalisation has an additional advantage, it helps attract and retain a talented workforce. The younger generation is increasingly concerned about environmental and social issues. Companies that demonstrate a commitment to sustainability and technological innovation are more likely to attract these individuals. To stay competitive, the hydraulics and pneumatics industries must navigate the challenges of our time by embracing digitalisation and investing in technology. This transition will not only enhance operational efficiency, sustainability, and supply chain resilience but also position companies to cope with the instabilities of the global economy and take advantage of new opportunities. Aaron Blutstein Editor

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www.hpmag.co.uk HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 5 CONTENTS EDITORIAL Editor: Aaron Blutstein t| 01732 370340 e| editorial@dfamedia.co.uk Content Sub Editor: Leslah Garland t| 01732 370340 e| leslah.garland@dfamedia.co.uk SALES Sales Manager, UK & Overseas: Andrew Jell t| 01732 370347 e| andrew.jell@dfamedia.co.uk Italian Sales Office: Oliver & Diego Casiraghi t| 031 261407 f| 031 261380 e| info@casiraghi.info Turkey: Intersmart Media meltem@intersmartmedia.co.uk Managing Director: Ryan Fuller t| 01732 370344 e| ryan.fuller@dfamedia.co.uk Production Manager & Designer: Chris Davis t| 01732 370340 e| chris.davis@dfamedia.co.uk Reader/Circulation Enquiries: Perception t| +44 (0) 1825 701520. e| dfamedia@dmags.co.uk Marketing Executive Hope Jepson e| hope.jepson@dfamedia.co.uk Operations Manager: Emma Floyd e| emma.floyd@dfamedia.co.uk Financial: Finance Department e| accounts@dfamedia.co.uk Chief Executive Officer: Ian Atkinson e| ian.atkinson@dfamedia.co.uk Published by: DFA Media Group 192 The High Street, Tonbridge, Kent TN9 1BE t| 01732 370340 e| info@dfamedia.co.uk w| www.hpmag.co.uk In co-operation with Printer: Warners, UK © Copyright 2023, DFA Manufacturing Media Ltd ISSN 1366-1981 H&P is a controlled circulation magazine, published 8 times a year. Please contact DFA Media with any subscription enquiries. Paid subscriptions are also available on an annual basis at £110.00 (UK), £145.00 (Europe) or £180.00 (Rest of the World) P+P included. The content of this magazine, website and newsletters do not necessarily express the views of the Editor or publishers. The publishers accept no legal responsibility for loss arising from information in this publication. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced or stored in a retrieval system without the written consent of the publishers. 18 14 6 NEWS 14 KNOWLEDGE BASE More than 50% of the world’s population lives in cities today – a number expected to increase to almost 70% by 2050. As the global population continues to soar, construction of new cities and the expansion of existing cities will be required. In fact, the International Energy Agency estimates that global built floor area will increase by around 20% by the year 2030. Domenico Traverso, President, Editron & Incubation Divisions, Danfoss Power Solutions, explains further. 16 APPLICATIONS A partnership between Close Brothers and the University of Sheffield AMRC Training Centre has further cemented a commitment to supporting apprentices and SMEs, helping businesses secure sustainable growth to build an engineering workforce for the future. H&P reports. 18 HYDRAULICS 24 PNEUMATICS Clint Botard highlights ten essential steps to optimise pressure relief system efficiency while maintaining regulatory compliance. 26 INTEGRATED SYSTEMS Hydraulic systems are an integral part of automation in various industries, including warehouse operations. In a warehouse setting, where efficiency, reliability, and precision are paramount, hydraulics can play a crucial role in certain applications. H&P explores the role of integrating hydraulics in warehouse automation and their benefits. 28 COMPRESSED AIR 30 SPECIAL FOCUS Fluid Power & Renewables/ Digitalisation 39 BFPA Hydraulics & Pneumatics’ issue-by-issue briefing on current activities and views involving the British Fluid Power Association. 42 BCAS Our regular news and events update on the British Compressed Air Society. 45 NEW FACES 46 PRODUCTS & SERVICES DIRECTORY 30

Danfoss Scotland, part of global hydraulics and electric powertrain systems supplier Danfoss Power Solutions, has received a grant worth £4,941,809 (approximately $6.1 million) from the U.K. Government’s Department for Energy Security & Net Zero through the Red Diesel Replacement Phase 2 Competition. The programme provides funding for projects developing low-carbon NEWS 6 HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 www.hpmag.co.uk AERZEN Machines celebrates 50th Anniversary the immense power consumption of excavators means that expensive batteries and charging infrastructure are required. This cost is a major barrier to wider adoption of electric machines.” He added: “Excavators account for 50% of emissions from construction machinery, and hydraulic systems within excavators waste as much as 70% of the useful power delivered by the engine. By dramatically improving excavator energy efficiency, we can reduce the battery size and charging energy required to do the same amount of work. This will bring down costs, thus accelerating the transition to zero-carbon energy sources. The solution to a greener future in construction is efficiency. If we can prove it’s possible in excavators, we can conceivably accelerate the electrification of all large construction machinery.” Danfoss’ Dextreme Max system is designed to cut excavator energy consumption by up to 50% by reducing energy losses and recovering energy that would otherwise be wasted. An integral component of the Dextreme Max system is the DDP1x0D, a Digital Displacement hydraulic pump that enables energy recovery from excavator motions such as slew deceleration and boom lowering. The energy recovery feature of the pump was developed as part of the Red Diesel Replacement Phase 1 Competition and proven at expected efficiency levels in a test rig. In Phase 2, Danfoss will integrate the DDP1x0D pump, an Editron electric AERZEN Machines is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The company was established on the 13th of September 1973. AERZEN Machines Ltd started to provide compressed air, gas and vacuum solutions to the markets in the UK and Ireland. Around thirty years ago the company says it only had 15 employees, and during busy periods, dedicated employees would occasionally work weekends to finish their jobs, some even working consecutively for seven weekends. Since then, the manufacturer has grown over the years, and now has over 50 employees spread around the UK and Ireland, making it easier to concentrate on each step of the way to make the process more efficient for its customers. AERZEN Machines has three offices across the UK and Ireland located in Loughton, South of England, Rotherham, North of England, and another in Castlecomer, Ireland. The company emphasised that AERZEN Machines would not be where it is today without its partners, including: Aerzener Maschinenfabrik (HQ in Germany), all its sister companies, AERZEN Rental and Suprafilt to name a few. AERZEN Machines also thanked its customers for their feedback, and loyalty over the years and for helping the company grow. £4.9 million grant awarded to accelerate decarbonisation of excavators alternatives to red diesel for the construction, mining and quarrying sectors. Danfoss will use the funds to validate its Dextreme Max system in a 30ton electric excavator, which it expects will reduce energy consumption by 50%. Leif Bruhn, head of Digital Displacement, Danfoss Power Solutions, commented: “Electrification offers a promising route to decarbonisation, but

8 HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 www.hpmag.co.uk NEWS Combilift celebrates 25 years at its Monaghan HQ In 1998 Combilift originally made history with its worldfirst multidirectional C4000 3-wheel, all-wheel drive forklift. Last month, the company celebrated its 25th Anniversary at its headquarters in Monaghan, Ireland. Speaking at Combilift’s 25th Anniversary event, Minister for Rural and Community Development, Heather Humphreys TD said: “Over the past 25 years, Combilift has made a very important impact to the Irish economy. Combilift is a visionary company in every sense and I’m delighted that the Irish government, through Enterprise Ireland, has supported Combilift through its incredible 25year journey.” Martin McVicar – Managing Director of Combilift, added: “We have a track record of innovation at Combilift. We invest 7% of our revenue annually in R&D and today is the culmination of many years’ hard work. We are delighted to be continuing this tradition of innovation 25 years on. Now employing over 800 people in Monaghan and 200 people in other locations across the world, the success of Combilift is testament to our people, our customers and our supporting dealers around the world. We are looking forward to the next 25 years at Combilift.” The 25th Anniversary event was a positive celebration of how far the company has come in those 25 years and an acknowledgement of the contributions the company has made to the material handlings sector across the world. drive, and other components required for the new system architecture into a battery-electric excavator. Danfoss plans to convert a 30-ton electric excavator at its Application Development Centre in Nordborg, Denmark, beginning in January 2024. The excavator will then be shipped to and operated at a quarry in the U.K., with project completion planned for February 2025. “This project is an incredible opportunity to prove the efficacy of a new system solution and architecture, demonstrating that large-scale innovation is still possible in hydraulics. We’re grateful to the U.K. Government for its support,” said Jeff Herrin, senior vice president of Research, Development, and Engineering at Danfoss Power Solutions. “In addition to the project’s stated goals, we intend to highlight how our application know-how and sustainable innovation is de-risking the adoption of new technology and supporting our customers in their decarbonisation journeys. Transitioning to low- and zero-emission machinery isn’t just good for the environment; it can support the construction industry’s drive for lower costs and higher productivity.” The Red Diesel Replacement Competition is part of the £1 billion Net Zero Innovation Portfolio, funded by the Department for Energy Security & Net Zero. The fund seeks to accelerate the commercialisation of low-carbon technologies to help enable the U.K. to end its contribution to climate change. The Red Diesel Replacement Competition is divided into two phases. The first phase was for the development of component technologies — for which Danfoss received a £407,112 grant — and the second phase is for system integration and demonstration of low-carbon solutions. The £4.94 million grant Danfoss received as part of Phase 2 represents 65% of the project cost. Danfoss will fund the remaining portion. Combilift now employs over 800 people in Monaghan and 200 people in other locations across the world

www.hpmag.co.uk HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 9 Britain’s manufacturers are calling on the Chancellor to announce a major MOT of the UK’s uncompetitive business tax and regulatory environment in the forthcoming Autumn Statement to boost investment planning by business. The call was made on the back of a major survey published by Make UK and RSM which sets the challenge to reform the UK regime of business taxation and regulation, with almost half of companies believing the current system is unfavourable and, more than a quarter feel is worse than China and other major competitors. Furthermore, companies are also reporting that the ‘flip flopping’ and frequent changes to policies on investment and R&D incentives in recent years have hampered business’ investment plans. As a result, Make UK is urging the Chancellor to announce that there will be just a single annual fiscal statement from now on. Reforms would look at measures, such as Business Rates, the research and development (R&D) tax credits, the Apprentice Levy and the Capital Allowances and Full Expensing system, and whether they are fit for an economy undergoing huge transformational change and encouraging, or hampering, long-term investment in capital, innovation, skills and moves to net zero. The findings in the report also support the view that an industrial strategy which encompasses reform of the current business tax and regulation system would lead to greater investment in labour and skills, R&D and decarbonisation. Fhaheen Khan, Senior Economist at Make UK, said: “Manufacturers are clear that many aspects of the current tax and regulatory system are not fit for purpose and are failing to promote the vital investment in skills, capital and green growth. This is not helped by the fact we have two fiscal statements a year which hampers business investment planning. We cannot continue with the current flip flopping and policy inconsistency if we are to shake the economy out of its current anaemic state and promote long-term growth. Government must start by conducting an urgent MOT of the current unfavourable regime to make it work for, rather than against, business.” Mike Thornton, head of manufacturing at RSM, added: “The correlation between tax and regulation and economic growth is clear. Yet UK manufacturers find the current framework a burden and unfavourable - putting UK industry at a competitive disadvantage globally. Long term commitment to generous and accessible incentives, and simplified regulations, are key to boosting future investment, productivity and skills.” According to the report, almost half of companies (44%) believe the UK has an unfavourable business tax and regulatory environment, with less than a fifth (18%) believing it to be favourable. On balance, manufacturers say the UK is worse than its competitors with more than a quarter (28%) believing it to be less favourable than China. Over a quarter (27%) believe it is worse than the US, Germany (26%), France (23%) and Italy (21%). Conversely, manufacturers believe that a more favourable environment with the simplification of incentives, tax and regulations would ease the burden on business, while more than half (54%) believe that frequent changes to R&D and investment incentives over the last three years have made it more challenging to plan investments. By contrast, fewer than a fifth (16%) felt the changes had allowed their business to increase investment. The most effective policy tools to promote investment and growth were capital allowances for plant and machinery (73%), R&D tax credits (65%) and a competitive Corporation Tax system (59%) while more than half (55%) believe the current policy of full expensing should be made permanent. The survey also shows manufacturers believe an industrial strategy would have clear benefits with more than two thirds of manufacturers (67%) saying it would lead to greater investment in labour and skills, almost two thirds (61%) saying it would aid investment in R&D and almost half (45%) saying it would support investment in de-carbonisation and net zero. Manufacturers call for major MOT of UK’s business tax and regulation system

NEWS 10 HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 www.hpmag.co.uk AI technology leader to take over as IET President Artificial Intelligence expert Dr. Gopichand Katragadda has been appointed as the 142nd President of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET). He will be the first Indian in the history of the IET to assume this role, including the first Indian to assume the presidency of a global engineering body. A seasoned technologist and executive leader, Dr. Gopichand is the Founder of Myelin Foundry – an AI company with a vision to transform human experiences and industry outcomes. He is also an Independent Director of Bosch India Limited and ICICI Securities and a member of the NASSCOM governing council for the Centre of Excellence for Data Science and AI. He took office on the 1 October 2023, taking over from Professor Bob Cryan CBE, Vice Chancellor and CEO of the University of Huddersfield. Past IET Presidents to lead the global engineering institution include a range of prominent leaders in the industry, such as Sir Robin Saxby, Founder and Ex-CEO, ARM Holdings and Naomi Climer CBE, former Vice-President of Sony Professional Solutions Europe and coFounder and co-Chair of the Institute of Work. Dr. Gopichand said: “I’m deeply honoured and excited to take on the role of the IET’s 142nd President. The role is a natural continuum to my volunteering for the IET and I am looking forward to working with the trustees to give advice and support as the IET ramps up its digitalisation strategy.” With his upcoming President’s Address focusing on the role Engineers have with AI, he continued: “We are at a point in time for AI similar to what the early 1990s were to the internet. Everything around us will be reinvented and engineers can lead the way in delivering a resilient future by embracing innovation and technical advancements and dispelling myths about AI. Engineers must also lead the way in understanding AI’s positive and negative impacts and work with policymakers to define guardrails and frameworks for Ethical data and Ethical AI.” In his presidential year, Dr. Gopichand will work closely with the IET to shape the organisation’s directives and strategise the advancement of engineering and technology in society. He will represent the IET at various events and conferences, advocating for its interests in society. Dr Gopichand will also play a pivotal role in supporting the continuous professional development of IET members and participate in initiatives aimed at advancing innovation and research in the engineering community, especially in the AI space. Dr. Gopichand’s inaugural address, ‘Engineers and AI: The key to delivering a resilient future’, will take place on Tuesday 21 November at 18:30 GMT at IET London: Savoy Place and will broadcast live via the IET’s YouTube channel. In his address, Dr Gopichand will explore the themes of AI as a transformative force critical in achieving a sustainable and progressive future. EngineeringUK launches new 5-year strategy to enable engineering and technology to thrive Not-for-profit EngineeringUK has announced it’s entering a new strategy period – which will set the direction of the organisation over the next 5 years. With a core purpose of driving change so more young people choose engineering and technology careers, EngineeringUK’s refreshed vision is for the UK to have the diverse workforce needed for engineering and technology to thrive and to drive economic prosperity, improve sustainability and achieve net zero. Engineering and tech are critically important for the UK, with huge opportunities and responsibilities over the coming years, but the sector continues to face significant workforce challenges. Dr Hilary Leevers, Chief Executive of EngineeringUK, explained: “For engineering and technology to really thrive, we urgently need more people and more diversity in our workforce. Our new strategy provides us, and importantly all of our partners, with a renewed focus on what we’re trying to achieve, and clarity on how we’re going to get there. “We’re determined to achieve our mission of enabling more young people from all backgrounds to be inspired, informed and progress into engineering and technology. But this will only be possible by working in partnership - we all have a part to play in this.” Dr Alice Bunn, Chief Executive of the Institution for Mechanical Engineers and EngineeringUK Trustee, added: “Engineering is an exciting, rewarding career and engineers have a key role in solving many of the complex global challenges we face today. We need to encourage many more young people into the profession, and it is vitally important we work together to drive change and ensure that young people have the right skills to make a difference. EngineeringUK’s new strategy will engage more young people with engineering and technology, helping to inspire a new generation of innovators.”

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NEWS Talking Industry is a freeform conversation between industry experts, as opposed to a scripted webinar. On this occasion, the three speakers interpreted the intention perfectly, and the session almost morphed into a single conversational piece, where all of the topics were covered within a single chat. Our three speakers were: Ian Holland, Managing Director, Dold Industries Ltd; Peter Keckes, Strategic Account Manager UK&I, Red Lion Controls; and David Dearden, Managing Director of Euchner UK Ltd. David provided a general perspective of trends in safety and security technology. He sees safety solutions changing from hard-wired physical relaybased systems to programmable systems, as the cost of safety I/O has come down significantly. The number of vendors providing programmable or configurable safety control systems is also increasing. Whereas it was relatively prohibitive to use a programmable safety system on a machine, apart from in highly specialist circumstances, now it is becoming the norm. If you have a programmable controller or a PC based control system that’s managing the rest of the control function, why wouldn’t you also include that in the in the safety functions? With the advancement of automation and robotics, safety systems are also getting much more complex. It was not long before the other speakers entered the fray. Peter made the case for the continued use in some areas of hard-wired and simple logic systems, where speed is critical. This is because there are no conversions needed between the analogue and digital worlds. However, there is a need to take digital information out of a wired system, so that the information can be used elsewhere for monitoring and management purposes. Ian also made the case for relay logic, pointing out that his company still supplies millions of relays every day. Much of this demand is down to cost and the different skillsets which would be required. He said that cost is a major factor, and with the price of energy going up, the price of resource and infrastructure spending has to go down. But both Ian and David agreed that if building a new production line or a new warehousing logistics centre, it would be rare for the safety-related control system to be based on relay technology. The session moved on to discuss other aspects, including changing skillsets and the challenge of working with multiple protocols. We concluded with more futuristic concepts, including how artificial intelligence will influence safety and security technology over the next 5 to 10 years, both for good and ill, if it is not already here! Standards are trying hard to catch up with the fast-moving technology: as we might expect, the latest regulations are found within Europe, as the familiar Machinery Directive now has a very strong focus on cybersecurity. In the chat are some of the useful links provided by the speakers and other contributors. Even if you were unable to attend on the day, there is no better way to participate than to listen back to the on-demand version, or the podcasts. Do feel free to contact us with further questions, which we will readily pass on to the speakers on the day. The Talking Industry live event is just the beginning! Talking Industry is Sponsored by Drives & Controls Exhibition, the #1 event for automation, power transmission & motion control. Taking place 4-6th June 2024, at the NEC, Birmingham, in association with Manufacturing & Engineering Week 2024. Drive The Future. Visit: www.drives-expo.com Talking Industry: Advances in safety engineering and security The latest Talking Industry (TI) addressed how implementing safety initiatives can enhance efficiency, while addressing the risks. Andy Pye, Chairperson of TI, gives a brief overview of the event. 12 HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 www.hpmag.co.uk

www.hpmag.co.uk HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS March 2023 13 ! ! " ! ! ! ! #$% & ' ( ) * + 320 Series * tom-parker.co.uk sales@tom-parker.co.uk 01772 255109 320 Series Multi-link Aston University is to open up the world of smart manufacturing to the engineers of tomorrow. Based on the research expertise in the University’s College of Engineering and Physical Sciences it will be offering a masters degree in smart manufacturing. The field is estimated to expand by more than 12% between 2020-2025 due to the ‘fourth industrial revolution’ and government involvement. Industrial automation in manufacturing is on the increase as are software systems that reduce time and cost to the market. The masters course will teach a wide range of hands-on skills in smart manufacturing to create innovative solutions for complex manufacturing problems through developing state-ofthe-art technologies. Programme director Dr Muftooh Siddiqi said: “This is a course for those who want to be at the forefront of technological growth. “Smart manufacturing is of tremendous significance in the field of manufacturing and is a way to the future. “This programme will embed the technological revolution deep within the mindset of engineers and teach the skills to design and develop new technologies that embrace the challenges of future manufacturing.” The postgraduate degree, which starts in September, will include teaching of digital twin technology – a virtual replica used to improve efficiency by simulating manufacturing production processes. Students will learn to use it to improve production scheduling, predict equipment failure and improve maintenance. One of its related research collaborations, Horizon Europe H2GLASS, is a Europe-wide multi-million Euro project that aims to decarbonise the glass industry’s production processes. Aston University to open up the world of smart manufacturing to the engineers of tomorrow Programme director Dr Muftooh Siddiqi

KNOWLEDGE BASE: ENERGY EFFICIENCY & SAFETY As we build new homes, schools, shopping centres, utilities, and infrastructure to support the growing population, we need to be cognizant of carbon emissions. Materials and construction of buildings currently account for approximately 11% of global emissions2. Construction machinery emits around 400 megatons of CO2 annually3 – equivalent to the emissions from international aviation4 – with excavators accounting for 50% of all CO2 emissions created by the construction industry.5 We certainly don’t want to – and can’t – rein in construction. After all, it is central to economic and social development around the world. In the U.K., construction is responsible for one in every 20 jobs and contributes to 6% of GDP.5 In the EU, the sector provides 18 million direct jobs and contributes to about 9% of the EU’s GDP.6 But as the scale of global construction activity increases in the decades to come, we must find a way to reduce emissions to reach the goals of the Paris Agreement and combat climate change. We must act now to build the new cities of tomorrow without relying on the building practices of yesterday. Decarbonizing off-highway machines such as excavators will play a critical role. The future is electric Electrification holds the largest CO2 mitigation potential for construction machinery, while delivering significant environmental, health, and economic benefits. Already we are seeing a lot of progress from manufacturers as they look to electrify their vehicles, especially smaller machines that often work in citycentre locations. We believe full electrification will come to many forms of construction equipment sooner or later. However, some challenges need to be overcome if we are to make progress in the decarbonization of construction machinery. At first glance, it may seem 14 HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 www.hpmag.co.uk simple to follow the same path as passenger cars: make construction machinery battery-electric and charge them with energy derived from renewable sources. This is, of course, easier said than done. Compared to passenger cars, large machines such as excavators need to work much harder and for much longer between charges, which means they need extremely large batteries to match the productivity of their diesel equivalents. As a result, fully electric excavators consume a lot of resources for the battery and are expensive to buy, so the total cost of ownership over their lifetime can exceed diesel machines by a significant margin. More investment is also needed in providing infrastructure for the electrification of construction sites. Not all work sites have enough charging energy to support a fleet of electrically powered excavators. Those sites that do have adequate electrical power are often very big, such as quarries, and require battery-swapping in the field at the beginning and end of every shift. Given that batteries weigh tons, this poses operational challenges. While the world is rapidly scaling up much-needed renewable energy sources, we do not have unlimited green energy in the grid. The amount of additional green Energy efficiency: The first step to decarbonising construction More than 50% of the world’s population lives in cities today – a number expected to increase to almost 70% by 2050.1 As the global population continues to soar, construction of new cities and the expansion of existing cities will be required. In fact, the International Energy Agency estimates that global built floor area will increase by around 20% by the year 2030. Domenico Traverso, President, Editron & Incubation Divisions, Danfoss Power Solutions, explains further. energy needed for electrifying the excavator fleet is not trivial: a rough estimate says that if all the world’s excavators were electric, they would consume as much energy as is generated by all the world’s offshore wind turbines today.7 Despite these challenges, the industry is already pushing toward electrification. Today, small electric machines up to 3 tons exist and often work in city-centre locations. However, to make a substantial impact on CO2 emissions in the sector, solutions for larger machines over 10 tons are needed. These machines account for only 56% of units sold but contribute 92% of CO2 emissions.8 Boost productivity and slash emissions with energy efficiency Today’s excavator systems are only 30% efficient, meaning that 70% of the energy the engine produces is wasted instead of helping the excavator perform useful work. The key to reducing the footprint of these machines is to implement energy-efficient technologies that can immediately reduce diesel use and at the same time address some of the challenges for electrification. Electrification is not a question of “all or nothing.” For some vehicles that cannot yet be fully electrified, it is possible to downsize the diesel engine and electrify critical components of the machine, creating a significant benefit from the increased efficiency of an electric system. Improving system efficiency reduces the size – and therefore the cost – of batteries and electric drive motors needed to power the machines. It also reduces the amount of charging power as well as the amount of renewable energy

generation required. This lowers the capital and operating costs of these vehicles, thereby accelerating market adoption. Ultimately, this means combining the most efficient technologies of today and tomorrow with the older machines of the past to reduce energy demand. Until full electrification can be achieved, this combination is the best and most practical solution available, and the results are impressive. We can improve a machine’s energy efficiency in three ways. The first is by reducing idle losses with variable displacement pumps, digital displacement, and decentralised drives. Machine usage data available through telematics can also be used to advise optimisation opportunities. The second way to improve energy efficiency is to reduce hydraulic losses with solutions such as individual metering control, direct-driven hydraulic actuators, digital hydraulics, and multi-chamber actuators. And finally, through the development of energy recovery systems, we can recycle the unused energy during operations such as boom lowering and slew deceleration. Some of technologies that we are seeing increasingly adopted can already deliver fuel savings of between 15-30% in excavators over 15 tons while at the same time increasing the work capacity of the machines. We believe it will soon be possible to reach fuel savings of up to 50%. Construction has a role to play in battling climate change Major metropolitan areas are proving to be a powerful force in decarbonization by demanding zero-emission operations, including on construction sites. Until recently, low-emission construction seemed unattainable. But as regulations for greenhouse gas emissions and sound pollution have been enacted, market innovations have gained traction, paving the way for change in the construction industry. Many cities around the world are now prioritizing different ways to reduce emissions from the construction sector. However, the pace needs to increase rapidly. The good news is emissions reduction can be accelerated greatly through the continued development of innovations and adoption of efficient technologies that are already available. Construction OEMs and contractors play a key role in building the new cities of tomorrow, but all organizations involved in the supply chain must collectively take steps to decarbonize the industry. Doing so will unlock significant environmental, health, and economic benefits. We have the solutions; now is the time for action. 1 IEA (2021). Empowering Cities for a Net Zero Future, p. 3. 2 World Green Building Council (2019). Bringing embodied carbon upfront. 3 DTechEx (2022). Electric Construction Machines Vital for Greener Construction. 4 JRC (2022). CO2 emissions of all world countries. 5 Reuters (2023). Struggling UK economy buttressed by construction as other sectors flag. 6 European Commission. Construction sector. 7 Danfoss (2023). FPC2023 Danfoss, p. 12. 8 Danfoss (2023). FPC2023 Danfoss, p. 9. Domenico Traverso, President, Editron & Incubation Divisions, Danfoss Power Solutions Hallite 777 Piston Seal. Optimal geometry for extreme durability under pressure. Discover more about our seals by getting in touch: www.hallite.com/contact

APPLICATIONS Over the past eight years, the Close Brothers SME Apprentice Programme has supported the training of 55 apprentices at the AMRC Training Centre, part of the University of Sheffield Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) innovation cluster. The next stage of the partnership will now see a further 20 apprenticeships funded over the coming year, with the intake beginning in September 2023. As many businesses try to survive the squeeze of inflationary pressures, the Close Brothers SME Apprentice Programme helps small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to grow their workforces and recruit new apprentices, providing a vital opportunity for businesses to invest in local talent and skills. Nikki Jones, director of the AMRC Training Centre, said its partnership with Close Brothers plays a crucial role in ensuring SMEs are equipped to employ apprentices, which helps these businesses to continue to thrive: “We are so grateful for the support we’ve received from Close Brothers over the past eight years and it’s a relationship we value highly,” added Nikki. “Their support has made a huge difference to the lives of so many apprentices and it’s a partnership we are excited to continue growing in the future. “This scheme not only supports apprentices to have the opportunity to explore an avenue which might not have been available to them previously, giving them the chance to learn and gain an important set of skills businesses are calling out for, but it also helps local SMEs to recruit the next generation of engineers. “It’s these smaller businesses that remain to be the lifeblood of our communities and local economy, and such support helps guide them through a difficult financial period currently being faced by many and fill any current skills gaps. What we do with Close Brothers provides the industry with a vital lifeline to carve out an engineering future of excellence within UK manufacturing.” Adrian Sainsbury, Chief Executive of Close Brothers Group plc, said: “We are delighted to be partnering again with the University of Sheffield AMRC Training Centre. It opens up great opportunities for young people and helps create a much-needed pipeline of future engineering talent. “Apprenticeships are an excellent way for UK SMEs to fill skills gaps, develop their future workforce and improve longterm growth prospects. “We know from experience that SMEs often need assistance to take on apprentices, so over the past eight years we have established a programme that aims to help with the specific issues they are facing including the cost of investing in an apprentice. We also want to help businesses establish a diverse and dynamic workforce of young fresh talent with new ideas and an eagerness to learn the skills and knowledge required to build a rewarding long-term career. “We are proud to be playing our part to help small businesses invest in their future and pass important skills onto the next generation.” Under the scheme, Close Brothers contributes up to 50% of the wages of the apprentices in the first year and 25% in the second year and covers all training costs. This year, Close Brothers will be funding 15 new apprentices and five progressing apprentices to higher and degree apprenticeships. For further information please visit: https://amrctraining.co.uk 16 HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 www.hpmag.co.uk Apprenticeship partnership for sustainable growth A partnership between Close Brothers and the University of Sheffield AMRC Training Centre has further cemented a commitment to supporting apprentices and SMEs, helping businesses secure sustainable growth to build an engineering workforce for the future. H&P Reports. Representatives from Close Brothers Group plc, pictured alongside University of Sheffield AMRC Training Centre apprentice alumni

www.hpmag.co.uk HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 17 Apprentice alumni Apprentice alumni Adrian Salatowski received support through the Close Brothers SME Apprentice Programme. He undertook a Level 3 Advanced Manufacturing Apprenticeship and progressed to a Level 6 Degree Apprenticeship in Manufacturing Technologies at the AMRC Training Centre. The 31-year-old has worked for CWE Ltd, based in North Lincolnshire, since January 2020. He began at the company as a CNC machinist and progressed to a quality assurance inspector role shortly after. He is now a quality assurance manager. Adrian said that receiving support from Close Brothers gave him a big boost and laid a solid foundation for his engineering career: “An apprenticeship appealed to me because of the accessibility element. As a foreign student from Poland, an apprenticeship seemed like the best way for me to redirect my life and join the engineering patch. “My family has always been very technical in various industries and an apprenticeship for me seemed like a natural continuity of the family tradition to join the same path. My engineering road was bumpy since I came to the UK from a different country, but having the support from Close Brothers has helped me immeasurably to have a job in engineering and boost my career. “As a proud part of the industry, I keep developing my strengths and growing as a professional. The skills and knowledge gained during my apprenticeship helped me prove my position at work which resulted in various promotions and general appreciation of my efforts.” Another former apprentice supported by the Close Brothers SME Apprentice Programme is 21-year-old Rosie Davies. She is a Level 3 CNC machine operator at Penny Hydraulics in Chesterfield and has worked there for almost three years. At the AMRC Training Centre, she achieved a Level 3 diploma in Advanced Manufacturing and Engineering (Computer Numerical Control). Rosie said: “Receiving the funding from Close Brothers has allowed the company to train me on our new CNC machine and it has enabled me to have the amazing opportunity to work in the engineering industry and to earn while I learn. “My grandfather, dad and uncle inspired me to pursue a career in engineering. As it runs in my family, it has always piqued my interest. Ever since I was younger, I have watched them take things apart and figure out how they work, or fix things I was sure would be broken for good - I wanted to be like them. “An apprenticeship gave me the skills and knowledge I needed to constantly develop my skills in the workplace, while teaching new apprentices the things I have learned. It’s something I’ll always be very grateful for.” Also working for Penny Hydraulics is design engineer Louie Hodkin. He gained a Level 3 in Technical Support at the AMRC Training Centre and is currently working towards his Level 6 Degree in Manufacturing Technology. “I didn’t want to go to university, but I wanted a degree, so I was in a difficult position until I found the AMRC Training Centre, which was specific to engineering,” added the 23-year-old. “It has allowed me to earn money while gaining valuable experience. “Without the support of Close Brothers and this scheme I wouldn’t have been able to undertake an apprenticeship or have the opportunity to take on multiple courses through the AMRC Training Centre.”

HYDRAULICS Drive controllers make servo pumps more efficient Performance, pump protection and high precision control without compromise – all this is provided by the servo pump control function integrated in KEB Automation’s drive controllers. In combination with KEB’s DL4 and TA series servo motors, they can also save energy. By controlling the pump drive, pressure and flow can be optimally adapted to the requirements of servohydraulic machines at any time. This is the case, for example, in injection moulding machines where cycle times are key. Here, the COMBIVERT F6 drive controller and S6 servo drives from KEB come in. With the precise and highperformance solution for pump control, the company says they ensure continuous control, as well as faster cycle times, to increase the productivity of injection moulding machines. Another goal of the control: the hydraulic valves are to be protected and the service life of the pump is to be extended. For this purpose, there are various parameters in the firmware of the drive controllers whereby the lifetime and availability of the injection moulding machines can be significantly increased. Various features that have been specifically integrated into KEB’s drive controller firmware are proving useful in practice. “Among other things, we have considered ‘anti-cogging’ in our solution”, says Michael Schulz, application engineer at KEB. He added: “This enables KEB’s inverters to equalise disturbing cogging torques, which are system-immanent in permanent magnet motors. The result is significantly improved concentricity on the motor axis. In combination with the notch filter from the Wizard, which serves to avoid resonances in the hydraulic circuit, the result is highly precise and very good control of flow and pressure. Furthermore, there is the additional feature that the PQ control can be switched on and off by setting a bit. The user therefore has a regular KEB drive in place. This can lead to cost savings.” The choice of servo pumps is always a sensible idea when hydraulic systems are confronted with highly dynamic or highly constant control requirements. These include various areas of plastics processing, hydraulics and bending presses, but also applications in the field of lifting technology. According to Schulz, the stability of the KEB system and the performance of the software solution are particularly evident in the control of pressure and flow. For more information, please visit: www.keb.co.uk Service time reduced with new shut-off device for agitators Sulzer has launched a new shut-off device SOD for horizontal SALOMIX SSA agitators that significantly reduces the time spent on servicing the seal. The device enables seal maintenance without emptying the tank, which makes the feature especially useful for very large tanks, wastewater treatment plants, and other critical processes. After shutting down the agitator, SOD is activated by pressure, which expands a rubber element that clamps around the shaft. The pressure can be applied with a simple hand pump, and either by air or water. There is no need to remove the shaft or unlock the bearings, which significantly speeds up the maintenance process. The simple structure also minimizes the chances of misuse. SOD is designed for a longer seal lifetime. Outside maintenance periods, the large radial clearance between the shaft sleeve and SOD’s cartridge provides an open seal environment that prevents clogging and drying out. Especially with contaminated liquids and slurries this is a key feature in maximizing seal lifetime. After extensive testing, the company says that the patented construction of SOD has proven to be extremely reliable. It enables a tight seal and works robustly even with impurities in the liquid. As a result, the device is especially suitable for paper pulp, wastewater, biofuels, metals, and mineral applications. SOD represents the latest in Sulzer’s continuous efforts to finalise its agitator selection: “In the past few years, we have developed the portfolio of our side-mounted agitators by combining our expertise with the customers’ needs, which has led to market leading hydraulics and a comprehensive agitator range packed with smart features. SOD is a good match with our objective to always serve our customers with innovative and reliable technology,” says Patrik Kolmodin, product manager of agitators at Sulzer. SOD suits most industrial applications. It is globally available for all sizes of the side-mounted SALOMIX™ SSA agitators in either EPDM or FKM rubber. The devices can be combined with gland packings or split mechanical seals. They endure high temperatures up to 90˚C (195°F) and pressures up to 4 bars (58 psi). For further information please visit: https://www.sulzer.com 18 HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS October 2023 www.hpmag.co.uk SOD has a large radial clearance to the shaft, which provides long seal lifetime